Hypertrophy and Hyperplasia: How Muscle Grows Posted on 10 Apr 20:57 , 0 comments
By Todd Lee M.D.
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Whole World Is Wrong?
When I was in medical school there was a textbook of Physiology by Guyton & Hall, that was considered the bible of human physiology. In this book it states, "Humans can only grow their existing muscle tissue 30% larger and cannot grow new muscle fibers or cells."
What a bunch of horse shit. If this was the case how would you have 300 pound bodybuilders?
Hypertrophy vs. Hyperplasia
Hypertrophy means increased growth. Hyperplasia means increased formation. There are several mechanisms for muscle tissue to develop but I will focus on the outcome and how modern medical science is not only wrong at a theoretical level, but overlooks the painfully obvious data: real life.
A muscle cell grows from many factors but in the end, it has to do with a few key components. Cells swell and grow larger in volume (hypertrophy) from increased water accumulation in the cell. This is achieved from hormones driving water into the cell directly like testosterone and DHT. It is also from solutes being driven into the cell by hormones and amino acids and carbohydrates being driven in by insulin. Hormones, like estrogen, cause cells to stretch partly through IGF-1 and the migration of satellite cells to the surface of the muscle cell by donating a nucleus.
A satellite cell is like a dormant stem cell and has many nuclei to donate. Muscle cells are special in that they have many nuclei. These nuclei allow for more protein synthesis within the muscle cell. Now, when testosterone binds to the androgen receptor, it has more nuclei to migrate to which allows for faster protein synthesis. These proteins are the contractile elements that actually do the work in the muscle of muscular contraction. MUSCLE PROTEIN HAS LITTLE TO DO WITH MUSCLE SIZE, it is for muscle STRENGTH. Size comes from how much water and glycogen is stored in the muscle.
Hyperplasia[caption id="attachment_683" align="alignleft" width="300"] Medical Science teaches muscle cells can not divide, that they can only swell. That only a 30% increase in muscle mass is possible.... It chooses to ignore the obvious examples of Professional Bodybuilders! (not me in this pic)[/caption]
When a muscle cell becomes so large it can't swell anymore, it will divide into two smaller cells. That is hyperplasia. Now the 2 smaller cells can begin to grow through more hypertrophy; subsequently, there can eventually be more muscle protein resulting in greater strength from the muscles being larger.
To reiterate: Muscle strength does not generate size; size permits the potential for strength however.[caption id="attachment_791" align="alignleft" width="618"] Different tissue undergoes one or both of these methods fro growth. Were focused on Skeletal Muscle here[/caption]
Upward Spiral Of Getting Swole
The volume of work you do helps the muscle to generate more mitochondria. The more nuclei from satellite cell donation means more mitochondria. More mitochondria means more work capacity. More work capacity means more volume can be performed before fainting and/or vomiting. More volume means more satellite cell migration. More satellite cells means more nuclei. More nuclei means more mitochondria, etc. Forever, in theory.
How does this actually cause Hypertrophy? The more volume in your workouts, the more glycogen you need. So your muscles adapt to hold more glycogen. With each mol of glycogen there are 3 mols of water which enter the cell osmotically. This intracellular stretching from the water eventually leads to cell splitting (hyperplasia).
Please Note:[caption id="attachment_790" align="alignleft" width="450"] Hard Training and hormones or synthetic hormones cause both hypertrophy and hyperplasia, through different methods[/caption]
Intensity releases growth factors like IGF-1 and MGF among others. These are critical elements in the muscle growth process. Just flailing away with light weight for hours may be voluminous but not intense, and thus useless. People who lift without intensity are like a 4 year old playing in the driver's seat when you have the keys in your pocket: they go nowhere. Most gym goers are equally oblivious of the futility of their efforts. They plod along with their useless routines and half measures and accomplish nothing. Years turn into decades and they look no better, only older.
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Creatine has been clinically proven to drive water into the cell and cause splitting. Testosterone has as well. The reason Super Drol, M-Drol and Halodrol were so popular is they put on a ton of water weight. The water weight was in the muscle though, not under the skin, like D-Bol.
Wet anabolics like testosterone, EQ, or deca will have an efficient blend of testosterone and estrogen to stimulate all the mechanism for muscle hypertrophy and eventually hyperplasia. Assuming you lift like there is a gun to your head of course! Tren causes both effects not through estrogen but it's IGF-1 effects.
Too intense? There are other sports like ping pong and cross country skiing for you to try.
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Nothing in this article or on this site should be considered medical advice or as an endorsement to violate any law of the country in which you reside. The information given is for fun and entertainment purposes only. All claims are 100% dependent upon proper diet and exercise. Please consult a medical practitioner prior to any diet and exercise program.